Mexico Independence Process

Mexico Independence Process

First stage

This first stage begins at the beginning of the decade between 1800 and 1810, when the settlers of New Spain, including the rich, creoles, indigenous people and large landowners, no longer wished to share the wealth of the new town with the Spanish who were also called gachupines, besides that within New Spain there was a lot of social inequality, this was the main pretext for thinking about Independence.

In 1808, Napoleon occupies Spain. The people of Mexico upon learning of the French invasion in Spain, began to promote the Independence movement, through posters throughout the country. At first a movement in favor of independence was organized in Valladolid, but it was quickly put down, however others soon emerged at the head of Ignacio Allende, the magistrate Domínguez and his wife Josefa, Abasolo, Aldama and Don Joaquín Arias.

According to, the most important was that of Querétaro organized by the mayor Domínguez. Knowing that the Mexican people were a faithful follower of the church, they thought of inviting a priest in order to convince all the people, so Allende proposed Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla who was the priest of Dolores; Hidalgo accepted the invitation and it was Allende who was in charge of maintaining contact with Hidalgo.

Discovered the conspiracy, Father Miguel Hidalgo who decided to start the fight immediately while he was in Dolores [10] . First they released the prisoners, they apprehended the Spaniards who were in the town. Then at 5 in the morning of September 16, 1810, mass was called, the people responded to the call and with the cry , Mexicans, long live Mexico!“Long live the Virgin of Guadalupe!”Viva Fernando VII! and Death to bad government! ; Hidalgo incited the people to rise against the Spaniards. This event is known as ” Grito de Dolores “.

After the defeat of Guadalajara in 1811 the insurgent army dispersed. Hidalgo and the other chiefs left for Aguascalientes, and during the journey Hidalgo was stripped of his position as first magistrate, which was granted to Allende. Later they decided to go to the United States in order to request financial aid.

Elizondo, who was the head of the liberation movement in Coahuila, betrayed them and they were arrested in Acatita de Baján (Las Norias). Hidalgo, Allende, Aldama and Jiménez were tried and sentenced to be shot, after being shot they were beheaded and their heads were put into cages and hung in the 4 corners of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas. His death marked the end of the first stage of the struggle for independence.

Second and third stage

The second stage of the struggles for independence is characterized by the extensive struggles in the south of the country under the command of José María Morelos y Pavón, who had previously been the Cura de Carácuaro, but when he had interviewed Hidalgo some time before, he told him that will be in charge of organizing the people of the south, this stage is characterized by the organization and definition of this movement.

He was joined by brothers Juan, José and Hermenegildo Galeana who had a lot of popularity, land and knowledge. Viceroy Venegas sent Francisco Paris to fight against Morelos, but in Tres Palos the insurgent army obtained victory. During this time, many provinces of the national territory were won and the struggle took shape.

One of the most important episodes during the Morelos struggle was the Site of Cuautla; the 23 of January of 1812 Morelos defeated in Tenancingo Rosendo Porlier to the brigadier and then retired to Cuautla de Amilpas (in the state of Morelos) to wait Callejas. It had about 4000 soldiers commanded by Matamoros, Galeana and the Bravos. The royalists had three divisions commanded by Callejas, Llano and Porlier. These forces numbered eight thousand men. Morelos resisted terrible assaults from 18 February to 2 of maypole of 1812, that because of the lack of evidence of war and food, broke the site saving most of his troops.

Morelos was defeated at Valladolid and the royalists penetrated the South. The Congress had to go on pilgrimage to different places, and when it arrived in Apatzingán in October 1814, it released the Constitution, inspired by the French of 1793and the Spanish of 1812. The Apatzingán Constitution was never in force. When it was enacted, the insurgents had been evicted from the southern provinces.

Morelos was taken prisoner and shot on December 22, 1815 in San Cristobal Ecatepec.

After the death of Morelos, a period of decline of the struggle began, since it lacked the union of the main leaders, who did not have enough military knowledge. For their part, the Spanish committed all kinds of excesses for which the Spanish Crown ordered the viceroy to be removed from office and to put Don Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, who was governor of Cuba, in his place. Juan Ruiz arrived in New Spain in 1816 and began his government by demanding that all arrested insurgents be put on trial and in no way summarily shot as ordered by his predecessor.

The insurgents’ military tactics had changed, as instead of attacking they preferred to retreat to the forts and organize only resistance.

Since José Mina left Tamaulipas for the interior of the country, he began to have victorious campaigns, but then on one of his trips to San Luis de la Paz in Guanajuato, he was surprised by Liñán at the command of the royalists at Rancho del Venadito, who had always persecuted them, Pedro Moreno died in battle and Mina was taken prisoner and sentenced to death (December 11, 1817).

So again the libertarian movement began to decline; the insurgent centers were dominated by royalists such as the Junta de Jaujilla in Michoacán, which was dissolved in November 1819, and that of Palmillas in Veracruz; The same happened with the leaders of the movement such as Rayón, Verduzco and Bravo, who succumbed to the struggle and were sentenced to life imprisonment. Meanwhile Guerrero began his fight in the South.

Consummation of independence

After eleven years of fighting, many began to see the rebellion lost. In the south Guerrero remained undefeated, with a small army, there he was joined by Pedro Ascencio, who had fought while cultivating the lands so as not to lack food. Ascencio had fought in the Sierra de Goleta, in this the geographical accidents were an ally for the insurgents, since the royalists were not used to fighting in those conditions.

Fernando VII, ordered Riego and Quiroga to suppress the struggles in New Spain, but they rose up to force the monarch to accept the Constitution, for which he was forced to swear to it and summon a Court.

The conspirators of the Profesa then resolved to proclaim independence by calling a Spanish prince to power. Monteagudo proposed Don Agustín de Iturbide to carry out the plan, replacing Armijo. Seeing the problems of the Spanish, the insurgents were encouraged to start the fight again.

Iturbide was supported by the Spaniards, since he informed them that he had subjected the insurgents, however what he wanted was to unite both Creoles and Spaniards, to create a nation that would not be subject to Spain. At first it was thought of a monarchical government, but the ruler (even if he was from the Bourbon family) was wanted to rule liberally and independently. And finally it was established that the only religion would be the Catholic.

These were the famous Three Guarantees: union (red), independence (green) and religion (white), the former being understood as the fusion of Americans and Spaniards. With these principles, Iturbide the 1 of March of 1821, gathered his troops and swore to them comply with the principles of the Three Guarantees, to the army resulting from the union of Spaniards and Creoles was called Trigarante or the Three Guarantees.

In Acapulco, Iturbide suffered some casualties from Armijo’s army in the south. Iturbide marched to the Bajío and was joined by several royalists, including Filisola. In almost all the provinces they were joined by important people from the royalists such as Bustamante and Cortázar; as insurgents like Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria, Rayón, Negrete.

A few days later, Juan O’Donojú arrived from Spain, with the position of Viceroy, who agreed to negotiate with Iturbide and signed the Treaty of Córdoba on August 24, 1821, which essentially ratified the Plan of Equal to. On September 27, the Trigarante army, led by Iturbide, made its triumphal entry into Mexico and on September 28 the first independent government was appointed. Thus, after eleven years of struggle, Mexico proclaims itself an independent country.

Mexico Independence Process

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