Tanzania Tracker

Tanzania is a country located in East Africa, bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south, and the Indian Ocean to the east. Its strategic location along the eastern coast of Africa makes it a gateway to the African continent.



Tanzania’s climate varies from tropical along the coast to temperate in the highlands. The country experiences two rainy seasons: the long rains from March to May and the short rains from October to December. The coastal regions have a hot and humid climate, while the inland areas have more moderate temperatures.


Tanzania is renowned for its rich biodiversity and abundant wildlife. The country is home to iconic African species such as lions, elephants, giraffes, zebras, and wildebeests, which roam freely in its national parks and game reserves. The Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area are among the most famous wildlife destinations in the world.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Tanzania is the Rufiji River, which flows approximately 600 kilometers (370 miles) from its source in the southern highlands to the Indian Ocean. Other major rivers include the Pangani, Wami, and Ruvuma rivers, which play important roles in irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and water supply.

Highest Mountains

Tanzania is home to Africa’s highest mountain, Mount Kilimanjaro, standing at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet) above sea level. Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano and a popular destination for climbers and trekkers from around the world. The country also has other notable peaks, including Mount Meru and the Usambara Mountains.



The territory of present-day Tanzania has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years. Archaeological evidence suggests that early human ancestors, including Homo habilis and Homo erectus, lived in the area millions of years ago. Stone tools and fossilized remains have been found at sites such as Olduvai Gorge, indicating early human activity.

Bantu Migrations

Around 2,000 years ago, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated into the region, bringing with them ironworking skills, agriculture, and new social structures. These migrations led to the formation of various ethnic groups, including the Chagga, Sukuma, and Maasai, who still inhabit Tanzania today.

Arab and Swahili Influence

From the 8th century onwards, Arab traders established trading settlements along the coast of present-day Tanzania, which became part of the Swahili Coast trading network. Swahili, a Bantu-Arabic language, emerged as a lingua franca in the region, facilitating trade and cultural exchange between African and Arab communities.

Colonial Period

In the late 19th century, Tanzania came under European colonial rule, with the coastal areas controlled by the Sultanate of Zanzibar and the interior territories administered by Germany. German East Africa, as it was known, was characterized by forced labor, land expropriation, and exploitation of natural resources.

Independence and Modern Age

Tanzania gained independence from Britain in 1961, with Julius Nyerere becoming the country’s first president. Nyerere’s socialist policies aimed to create a united and self-reliant nation, leading to the establishment of ujamaa villages and the promotion of Swahili as the national language. Since independence, Tanzania has made progress in economic development, education, and healthcare, although challenges such as poverty, corruption, and environmental degradation persist.


Tanzania has a population of approximately 60 million people, making it one of the largest countries in Africa in terms of population. The population is ethnically diverse, with over 120 different ethnic groups, including the Sukuma, Chagga, and Hadza. Swahili and English are the official languages, and Islam and Christianity are the predominant religions.

Administrative Divisions

Tanzania is divided into 31 regions (mikoa), which are further subdivided into districts (wilaya), divisions (tarafa), and wards (kata). Here are the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Dar es Salaam Region – Population: 6.7 million
  2. Mwanza Region – Population: 3.5 million
  3. Arusha Region – Population: 2.3 million
  4. Dodoma Region – Population: 2.1 million
  5. Mbeya Region – Population: 2 million
  6. Morogoro Region – Population: 2 million
  7. Tanga Region – Population: 2 million
  8. Pwani Region – Population: 1.5 million
  9. Kilimanjaro Region – Population: 1.6 million
  10. Kagera Region – Population: 1.8 million
  11. Regions and districts within each region

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Tanzania by population are:

  1. Dar es Salaam
  2. Mwanza
  3. Arusha
  4. Dodoma
  5. Mbeya
  6. Morogoro
  7. Tanga
  8. Zanzibar City
  9. Kigoma
  10. Tabora

Education Systems

Education in Tanzania is provided free of charge at the primary and secondary levels, with primary education being compulsory. The country has made significant progress in improving access to education, with efforts to increase enrollment rates and reduce gender disparities. Tanzania has several universities and higher education institutions, including the University of Dar es Salaam and Sokoine University of Agriculture.



Tanzania has several major airports, including Julius Nyerere International Airport in Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro International Airport near Arusha, and Zanzibar International Airport. These airports serve domestic and international flights, connecting Tanzania with destinations around the world.


Tanzania has a limited railway network, with the Tanzania Railways Corporation operating passenger and freight services. The total length of Tanzania’s railways is approximately 3,682 kilometers (2,288 miles), with major routes connecting Dar es Salaam with central and northern regions.


Tanzania has an extensive network of highways and roads, including the Tanzam Highway connecting Dar es Salaam with Zambia, and the Great North Road linking the country with Kenya. The total length of Tanzania’s highways is approximately 86,500 kilometers (53,700 miles), facilitating transportation and trade.


Tanzania has several major ports, including the Port of Dar es Salaam, which is the largest port in East Africa and a vital hub for maritime trade. Other ports include the Port of Tanga and the Port of Mtwara, which handle cargo and container traffic, serving as gateways for imports and exports.

Country Facts

  • Population: 60 million
  • Capital: Dodoma (official), Dar es Salaam (largest city)
  • Languages: Swahili (official), English
  • Religion: Christianity, Islam
  • Ethnicity: Sukuma, Chagga, Hadza, others
  • Currency: Tanzanian Shilling (TZS)
  • ISO Country Code: TZ
  • International Calling Code: +255
  • Top-Level Domain: .tz